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New Post 6/27/2012 3:54 PM
  ChineseTime
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Sentences in Chinese Language 
Modified By ChineseTime  on 6/27/2012 3:56:27 PM)

Learn Chinese: Sentences in Chinese Language

In Modern Chinese grammar, the Chinese sentences structure is basically the same as the structure of a phrase, every phrase can make a sentence when it is added by a certain intonation.

A sentence can be divided into several different parts. Sentence elements are the parts that play different grammatical roles in a sentence.
Generally speaking, there are 8 kinds of sentence elements in modern Chinese sentences structure. They are: Subject, Predicate, Adnex, Object, Attributive, Adverbial, Complement,and head.

1. Subject

Most subjects are at the beginning of a sentence followed by the predicate part; it is the theme of a statement.

我(wǒ) 爱(ài)  读(dú) 书(shū)  ( I love reading books ) - 我 is the subject in this sentence.

2. Predicate

The predicate part is the part that states the subject. In the following sentences, the underlined part is predicate.

她(tā) 写(xiě) 字(zì)  ( she writes ) - 写 is the predicate in this sentence.

3. Object

The object is the element controlled by or related with the predicate prior to it.

In the above examples, 书 and 字 are both object.

4. Adnex

The adnex is the element that can be followed by an object, it is usually acted by a verb or verbal phrase.

我(wǒ)  买(mǎi) 了(le) 一(yí) 件(jiàn) 衣(yī)  服(fú)   ( I bought a suit ) - 一件 is an Adnex in this sentence to describe object 衣服(suit).

5. Attributive

Attributive is used to modify a noun or a nounal phrase that is usually acting as the subject or object in a sentence.

北(běi)  京(jīng) 是(shì) 一(yí) 座(zuò) 美(měi) 丽(lì) 的(de) 城(chéng)  市(shì) ( Beijing is a beautiful city ) - 美丽的 is an Attributive to describe object 城市 (city).

6. Adverbial

Adverbial is the modifying element prior to the predicate, or in some cases, at the beginning of a sentence.

他(tā) 迅(xùn) 速(sù) 地(dì) 离(lí) 开(kāi) 了(le) ( he left quickly ) - 迅速地(quickly) is the Adverbial in this sentence to modify predicate 离开(left).

7. Complement

Complement is the complemental description element following a verbal or adjective phrase.

她(tā)  的(de) 英(yīng) 文(wén) 好(hǎo) 极(jí) 了(le) ( her English is very well ) - 极了( very ) is the complement element to describe verb 好( well ).

8. Head

Head is the part that being modified or postmodified. The head can be grouped as modified by attributive, by adverbial and by complement.

我(wǒ)  们(men) 语(yǔ) 言(yán) 学(xué) 院(yuàn) 招(zhāo) 收(shōu) 了(le) 一(yì) 批(pī) 新(xīn) 学(xué) 员(yuán) ( Our Language Institute has recruited a group of new students ) - 语言学院 ( Language Institute ) is the head part; 招收( recruited ) )is the predicate head part; 新学员( new students ) is the object head part.

As you can see, Chinese sentences structure can be a bit hard to get at the beginning, but with a little practice will come more easily.

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