Top

Passive with 被, 让, 叫 and 给

2013-05-23 18:19 ChineseTime

Learn Chinese:

Passive with 被, 让, 叫 and 给



In Chinese, the passive constructions with 被 bèi 让 ràng 叫 jiào and 给 gěi are not as frequently used as are passive constructions in English. For instance, when translating the previous sentence into Chinese, one would not use the bèi construction.
 
1. The co-verbs 被 bèi 让 ràng 叫 jiào and 给 gěi are used to introduce the agent of a passive sentence, as in 我的车被小王借走了wǒ de chē bèi Xiǎo Wáng jiè zǒu le my car has been borrowed by Xiao Wang. The co-verb 被 bèi introduces the agent, Xiao Wang, who has carried out the action of borrowing. All the co-verbs above have the same function when introducing the agent of a passive sentence, but 被 bèi is the most commonly used. The following tables show the sentence components that are used in the 被 bèi construction.

sbject

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

agent

verb + other elements

我的车

//   /

     

  

wǒ de chē

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

Xiǎo Wáng

jiè zǒu le

My car has been borrowed by Xiao Wang.

sbject

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

agent

verb + other elements

我的车

//   /

     

             

wǒ de chē

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

Xiǎo Wáng

kāi       huí jiā qù le

My car has been driven back home by Xiao Wang.

You might have noticed that the ‘action verb plus other element’ constructions used in the above sentences are complicated ones. Which elements that can be used with verbs in a 被 bèi construction? Let’s look at the following list.
 
2. The elements that are commonly preceded by verbs in the bèi construction are:
 
--resultative complements
--directional complements
--the complement of degree
--action measures
 

As you may have noticed, the elements that are used in the 被 bèi sentence construction are very similar to the ones used in the 把 bǎ construction. After learning the examples below please try to reformulate them as 把 bǎ constructions.

sbject

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

Agent

verb + resultative complement

电视

//   /

      

       

diànshì

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

Xiǎo Wáng

xiū   hǎo le

The TV has been mended by Xiao Wang.

sbject

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

agent

verb + directional complement

我的车

//   /

     

            

wǒ de chē

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

Xiǎo Wáng

kāi      huí jiā  le

 My car has been driven back home by Xiao Wang.

sbject

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

agent

verb + complement of degree

房间

//   /

     

打扫         干净

fángjiān

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

Xiǎo Wáng

dǎsǎo de hěn gānjìng

The room has been cleaned up very nicely by Xiao Wang.

sbject

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

agent

verb + action measure

    

//   /

     

     一会儿

wǒ de chē

bèi/ràng/jiào/gěi

Xiǎo Wáng

yòng le yíhuòr

My car has been used by Xiao Wang for a little while.

3. 被 bèi can also be used to form a passive sentence without introducing an agent, but 给 gěi  让 jiào and 叫 ràng cannot be used in this way. For example,

sbject

bèi

verb + other elements

    

            

wǒ de chē

bèi

kāi      huí jiā qù le

My car has been driven back home.

sbject

bèi

verb + other elements

    

         

diànshì

bèi

xiū     hǎo le

The TV has been mended.

 

sbject

bèi

verb + other elements

    

打扫            

fángjiān

bèi

dǎsǎo de hěn gānjìng

 The room has been cleaned up very nicely.

sbject

bèi

verb + other elements

课文

翻译            语了

kèwén

bèi

fānyì chéng Hànyǔ le

The room has been cleaned up very nicely.

4. The above examples also indicate that aspect le is used when expressing the idea of an action that has happened. 没 méi not can be followed by the co-verb 被 bèi to change the above examples into the negative form in order to deny that the action has taken place. For example,

If someone says that:

sbject

bèi

agent

verb + resultative complement

    

     

          

diànshì

bèi

Xiǎo Wáng

xiū      hǎo le

The TV has been mended by Xiao Wang.

You can deny that the action has taken place by saying:

sbject

méi bèi

agent

verb + resultative complement

电视

    

小王

  

diànshì

méi bèi

Xiǎo Wáng

xiū   hǎo

The TV hasn’t been mended by Xiao Wang.

If someone says that:

sbject

bèi

verb + complement of degree

房间

打扫            

fángjiān

bèi

dǎsǎo de hěn gānjìng

The room has been cleaned up very nicely.

You can deny that the outcome of the action by saying:

sbject

bèi

verb + complement of degree (bu)

房间

            

fángjiān

bèi

dǎsǎo de buhěn gānjìng

The room has been cleaned up very nicely.

5. Adverbs that are used to describe actions are placed before the verb in a 被 bèi construction, unlike adverbs that are used in the 把 bǎ construction, which are followed by the co-verb 把 bǎ. Let’s see look at some examples.

sbject

bèi

agent

adverbial phrase + de

verb + other elements

课文

      

              

  了一遍

kèwén

bèi

Xiǎo Wáng

Qīngqīngchǔchǔ    de

niàn le yíbiàn

The text has been read out very clearly by Xiao Wang.

If we use this information to form a 把 bǎ sentence it would become:
 

sbject

adverbial phrase + de

object

verb + other elements

小王

               

课文

  了一遍

Xiǎo Wáng

qīngqīngchǔchǔ    de

kèwén

niàn le yíbiàn

Xiao Wang has read the text out loud very clearly.

Our new members

OR

Scan now
Responsive image

Artigos Relacionados